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1. How is dry ice "FOG" produced?

The CO2 gas given off by the dry ice pellet is very cold. When the CO2 bubbles reach the surface of the water, they burst, releasing VERY cold CO2 into the air above the water's surface. Because of the sudden change in temperature of the AIR, water vapor in the air condenses into visible water droplets -- thus, the fog.

2. Define atmosphere

The layer of gases that surrounds the earth

3. What percent of earth's atmosphere is made up by nitrogen?


4. What happens to the volume of a gas when it is heated?

The gas EXPANDS, taking up MORE volume.

5. What happens to the volume of a gas when it is COOLED?

The gas contracts and takes up less volume.

6. What happens to the density of the air when you hike UP a mountain?

The air becomes LESS dense.

7. Provide the correct numbers:1) Freezing point of water in Celsius; 2) Freezing point of water in Fahrenheit; 3) Boiling point of water in Celsius; 4) Boiling point of water in Fahrenheit

1) 0 degrees C; 2) 32 degrees F; 3) 100 degrees C; 4) 212 degrees F

8. High evaporation on the gauze of a wet bulb thermometer means WHAT? about relative humidity?

High evaporation means LOW relative humidity.

9. What is the reason for earth's seasons?

The tilt of the earth -- in winter for the Northern hemisphere, sunlight must go through more atmosphere (meaning it is weaker and has less radiant energy when it hits the ground), the "heating hours" of sunlight are fewer, and darkness (and therefore lack of heating) lasts longer

10. Why did we boil water in the flask and balloon experiment in which we wanted the balloon to be sucked into the flask?

We boiled water in order to create a very LOW pressure environment within the flask before we put the balloon on top. The evaporating water chased out other gases in the flask. When the flask cooled, the condensing water vapor helped pull the pressure down further. We did NOT boil water to increase the amount of heat inside the flask.

11. What kind of STUFF does air have in it?

Gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluoracarbons, bits of pollution, and LOTS of DUST!

12. What is the relationship between the mass of a given volume of air and its density?

Less dense air has less mass -- ie., fewer molecules of air in a given volume.

13. What accounts for all of the air pressure pressing down on the roof of your house?

All of the air in the "column" of air above your house -- all the way up to where "space" begins.

14. What is the name of people who study weather?


15. What are 2 main factors that determine the climate of a region?

temperature and precipitation

16. What are some of the theories scientists have come up with to explain climate change?

1) changing patterns of winds and ocean currents; 2) movement of continents; 3) volcanic eruptions; 4) meteor impacts

17. When did Dinosaurs become extinct?

65,000,000 years ago

18. How many degrees is the earth tilted on its axis?

23.5 degrees

19. What is the formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit?

C x 1.8 + 32 = F

20. What is the definition of "weather?"

The condition of the Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

21. What gas do animals produce through respiration?

carbon dioxide

22. A cubic meter of air can hold 10 grams of water vapor but only holds 4. The __________ _______________ is 40%

relative humidity

23. What does the term "wind chill" mean?

Increased cooling that can make the air feel cooler than the measurement on a thermometer.

24. The land on the rain shadow side of a mountain is called the ___________ side.


25. Why does Mt. Kilimanjaro in Kenya (located at the equator where it is HOT all the time) have snow on the top?

High elevation -- or altitude

26. Describe the weather in each of the 3 major climate zones. Include temperatures and precipitation.

Tropics -- hot all year long with lots of precipitation; Temperate -- hot in summer, cold in winter, moderate precipitation; Polar -- bitterly cold in the winter, cool in the summer, low precipitation

27. What is a "marine" climate?

A climate that is found along the coasts of continents in the temperate zone.

28. Name an ocean current close to the US on the east coast.

Gulf Stream

29. What is the name of the "super continent" that existed on earth some 230 million years ago?


30. What is "El Nino?"

El Nino is a warm water condition that develops off the coast of Peru that affects weather in Australia, South America, and the US.

31. What is a "major glaciation?"

A fancy name for ice age.

32. What is the period of time between major glaciations?


33. What is the name of a scientist who studies ancient climates?


34. Why is the Sahara Desert so dry?

Prevailing winds carry little moisture.

35. What is sublimation?

The process by which dry ice goes from a solid directly to a gas, by-passing the liquid stage OR the process by which water vapor changes directly into snow.

36. Name a warm ocean current at the equator.

Equatorial Countercurrent

37. Name a cold ocean current that flows south past California.

California Current

38. Name a cold ocean current north of Newfoundland in Canada.

Labrador Current

39. Name a warm ocean current that flows past England and Norway.

North Atlantic Current

40. Name a warm ocean current that flows past North Carolina.

Gulf Stream

41. Name a cold ocean current that flows northward up the coast of South America.

Peru (Humbolt) Current

42. Name a cold ocean current that flows around the continent at the south pole.

Antarctic Circumpolar Current

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