Chemistry Chapter 3 - States of Matter - Quiz Questions (#1- #5)

 Front - Question Back - Answer Q1-1:  State the KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER. f o l d A1-1:  All matter is made up of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules act like tiny particles that are always in motion. Q1-2:  How do you determine whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or a gas? f o l d A1-2: Solid: definite shape, definite volume; Liquid:  definite volume, no definite shape; gas: no definite shape or volume Q1-3:  Solids have two things in common. What are they? f o l d A1-3: Definite shapes & definite volumes Q1-4:  Liquids can change ….... (what?) f o l d A1-4:  shape Q1-5:  Gases can change two things. What are they? f o l d A1-5: shape and volume Q1-6:  Define the term ENERGY. f o l d A1-6: The capacity to do work. Q1-7:  Define the term TEMPERATURE. f o l d A1-7: a measure of how hot or cold something is; a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. Q1-8:  Define the term THERMAL ENERGY. f o l d A1-8: the total kinetic energy of a substance's atoms. Q1-9:  State two examples for each of the four states of matter. f o l d A1-9: solid -- marble & brass; liquid -- water & mercury; gas -- oxygen & nitrogen; plasma -- fire & lightning Q1-10:  Describe the relationship between temperature and kinetic energy. f o l d A1-10: temperature is a direct measure of average kinetic energy. Q1-11:  Which particles have the strongest attraction between them:  the particles of a gas, a liquid,  or a solid? A1-11: solid Q2-1: Give the three different states of water and at what temperature these changes occur. f o l d A2-1: solid -- < 32oF; liquid -- 32oF up to 212 oF; gas -- 212oF or greater Q2-2: Define EVAPORATION. f o l d A2-2: The change of state from a liquid to a gas. Q2-3: If you evaporated water dyed with green food coloring, would the condensation you recovered from the evaporated water still be green? Why or why not? f o l d A2-3: No. When you evaporate water, all other molecules (including green dye) are left behind. Only pure H2O will evaporate and only pure H2O will condense. Q2-4: Define SUBLIMATION. f o l d A2-4: The process in which a solid changes directly into a gas. (Example: When frozen carbon dioxide or "dry ice" turns directly into a gas without 'melting' first.) Q2-5: What form of precipitation occurs due to sublimation? f o l d A2-5:  snow Q2-6: Under what conditions will dry ice (carbon dioxide) sublimate? f o l d A2-6:  When it is taken out of storage and placed at room temperature. Q2-7: Define CONDENSATION. f o l d A2-7:  The change of state from a gas to a liquid -- as when water vapor in the air condenses into a liquid to form dew. Q2-8:  Under what conditions might it possible for carbon dioxide (a gas at room temperature) to become a liquid? f o l d A2-8:  Carbon dioxide can be forced into a liquid state by putting it under 5.1 atmospheres of pressure and keeping the temperature below 88 degrees F. Q4-1: What are the 4 properties of gases? f o l d A4-1: Gases flow, have low density, are compressible, and expand to fill their containers. Q4-2: Explain why the volume of a gas can change. f o l d A4-2: Attraction between gas particles is not strong, therefore, the volume of a gas can easily change. Q4-3: State BOYLE'S LAW and give an example. f o l d A4-3: When pressure increases, volume decreases. A diver's scuba tank is a good example. A LOT of air is compressed under great pressure into a small volume. Q4-4: What two variables are related by Boyle's Law? f o l d A4-4:  pressure and volume Q4-5: State GAY-LUSSAC'S LAW and give an example. f o l d A4-5:  The pressure of a gas is dependent upon temperature. Example: A balloon full of heated air increases in volume. Q4-6: If the volume of a gas is constant and temperature decreases, how does pressure change? f o l d A4-6: The pressure will decrease. Q4-7: State CHARLES'S LAW and give an example. f o l d A4-7: For a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, volume increases as temperature increases, and vice versa. Q4-8: When scientists record the volume of a gas, why do they also record the temperature and the pressure? f o l d A4-8: The volume of a gas can be changed by changing either the temperature or the pressure. Q4-9: Why are liquids instead of gases used in hydraulic brakes? f o l d A4-9: Liquids do not compress. Gases do compress. If a hydraulic system was filled with gas, you would compress the gas, but get nothing to move. Q4-10: Use Boyle's Law to explain why bubbled packing wrap pops when you squeeze it. f o l d A4-10: As the bubble is squeezed to a smaller volume, pressure inside the bubble increases until it is high enough to burst the bubble. Q4-11: All vacuum cleaners have a high-speed fan. Explain how this fan allows the vacuum cleaner to pick up dirt. A4-11: The fan causes air inside the vacuum cleaner to move faster, creating lower pressure. The higher pressure outside the vacuum cleaner then pushes the dirt into the vacuum cleaner. Q5-1: What is the theory that states that all matter is made of atoms and molecules that are always  in motion? f o l d A5-1: Kinetic Theory Q5-2: By determining whether the shape and volume of a substance are definite or variable you can classify matter as one of three things. What are they? f o l d A5-2: Solid, liquid, or gas Q5-3: Because they are in motion, all particles have …………     ………… f o l d A5-3: kinetic energy Q5-4: Can the identity of a substance change during a change in state? f o l d A5-4:  NO! Q5-5: A fundamental law of physical science deals with mass and energy. State the law. f o l d A5-5:  Mass and energy are both conserved. Neither mass nor energy can be created or destroyed. Q5-6: List 4 properties of gases. f o l d A5-6: a) Low density; b) compressible; c) expand to fill their containers; d) mostly empty space. Q5-7: For a fixed amount of gas, as the volume increases, the pressure …………. f o l d A5-7: decreases Q5-8: As the pressure on a fixed amount of gas increases, the temperature ………. A5-8: increases Q5-9: For a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, as the temperature increases, the volume ………… A5-9: increases Q5-10: Explain what happens to the pressure of a gas if the volume of the gas is TRIPLED. Assume temperature remains constant. A5-10:  According to Boyle's law pressure and volume are inversely proportional, so as one goes up, the other goes down. If volume is tripled, pressure goes down to 1/3 its original amount.